Key Objectives And Scientific Problems

  1. Reduce current uncertainty in the magnitude and sectoral distribution of carbonaceous aerosols (and copollutant) emissions over India.
    1. Measurement of field emission factors of carbonaceous aerosol fractions (BC, OC and BrC), speciated PM2.5 and selected co-emitted gases from major sources of regional importance(i.e., residential cooking, space heating, water heating and lighting, brick kilns, on-road diesel transport, and agricultural residue burning).
    2. Understanding the influence of technology, operating practice and fuel properties on microphysical, chemical and optical properties of aerosol emissions under field conditions.
    3. Identification of sources which emit the darkest (net warming) particles, through measurement of spectral mass absorption and scattering cross-section and microphysical properties.
    4. Estimation of activity rates in the use of different fuels, technologies, and practices in key carbonaceous aerosol emitting sectors over India.
    5. Development of a gridded carbonaceous aerosol emission inventory for India, with improved sectoral methodologies from ground-truthing and validation with field survey data.
  2. Identify and quantify sources influencing abundance and properties (chemical and optical) of anthropogenic aerosols and carbonaceous constituents over India.
    1. Seasonal and spatial variation in aerosol chemical composition and optical properties at eleven regionally representative sites across India.
    2. Quantitative source apportionment of PM2.5 and carbonaceous aerosols and identification of sources and geographical regions influencing high pollution episodes.
    3. Distinguishing similar sources of carbonaceous aerosol emissions using chemical fingerprinting (organic markers, thermally resolved carbon fractions and C-isotopes).
    4. Source apportionment of aerosol optical properties and resolution of primary versus secondary sources of aerosols using multi-linear extended models.
    5. To quantify source-sector influence on PM2.5 and carbonaceous aerosol abundance, through quantitative comparison of RCM predictions with PMF receptor modelling by season and region.
  3. Estimate the impact of aerosols (anthropogenic and carbonaceous) on regional climate variables, along with climate feedback on air-quality.
    1. Multi-model ensemble simulations, with RCMs and GCMs, for evaluation of model diversity in annual and seasonal anthropogenic aerosol variables and aerosol processes, including mass and species concentrations, sulphate formation (SO2/SO4 ratios), dry and wet deposition, total and species AOD, SSA, asymmetry parameter and radiative forcing.
    2. Estimating aerosol radiative forcing over India and the contribution of carbonaceous
      aerosols, resolved by source, season and region.
    3. Estimating the response of South Asian monsoon precipitation response to radiative forcing of aerosol direct, indirect and total effects.
    4. Special hypotheses including:
      1. Sensitivity of radiative forcing to changes in emissions, mixing state and aerosol optical properties (mass absorption cross-section);
      2. Carbonaceous aerosol influence on temperature response and frequency of high temperature extremes;
      3. Influence of anthropogenic aerosols on circulation patterns and cloud microphysics;
      4. Trends in aerosol deposition and radiative forcing, temperature and snow cover in the Himalaya.

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